Abrams Battle Tank (Abrams_Manual.txt)

Abrams Battle Tank

  HAS WORLD WAR III finally happened? You are assigned to help stop the advance
of Soviet troops into West Germany. Victory hinges on the performance of the
personnel and support forces behind the primary weapons system in non-nuclear,
mechanized warfare: the Main Battle Tank.

  The upgraded Main Battle Tank recently fielded by the United States is
respected by allies and feared by enemies as the most formidable on-land
weapons system in the United States/NATO arsenal. Its state-of-the-art
battlefield technology includes thermal imaging night sight capability and an
on-board ballistic computer. Powered by a 1,500 horsepower gas turbine engine,
and armed with a 120mm cannon for true fire-on-the-move capability, it is 63
tons of destructive power.

  This is the M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank, and you are in total command. Stay
on your feet, keep alert and don't stop to sight see. Each mission that you
undertake brings the Allies one step closer to victory. Or defeat.

  Abrams Battle Tank consists of 8 scenarios, or missions. Each one contains a
specific goal that you must complete in order for the mission to be successful.
Your overall objectives are those of any military commander in combat: on
offense, to destroy the enemy and shatter his will to fight; on defense, to
create the opportunity to change tot he offense. You can play the scenarios
individually as missions, or together as a full campaign. The scenarios have no
time limit.

  If you are commander who does not use manuals and needs little guidance,
these quick start instructions are for you. You will get just enough
information to get going.

(1) - Make copies of the game and play from the copies.
(2) - Select SCENARIO or CAMPAIGN from the menu. Scenario lets you play a
      single battle while Campaign takes you through the 8 missions until you
      are killed, finish, or quit.
(3) - Go the "Vehicle Specifications" chapter to identify the vehicle
on the
(4) - If you choose Campaign, select BEGIN, enter a name for your campaign, and
      press <ENTER> to start. If you choose Scenario, pick a scenario and
      select BEGIN to start.
(5) - Select your ammo mix from the clipboard on the Motor Pool screen.
(6) - Seek and Destroy.

  Don't hesitate to engage in battle, but make sure you're not
shelling allies;
it won't look good on your military record. And be sure to use the right
weapons for the right job. Good luck, commander - you'll need it.

  The Main Menu consists of 4 options: Scenario, Campaign, M1-Info & EXIT.

  �  SCENARIO  �
  Choose this if you want to play a single mission. Excellent for command
  training since you control the level of difficulty and choose day or night

  MISSION - Highlight this and press <ENTER> repeatedly to scroll through
  the scenarios.

  TIME - You can toggle between DAY and NIGHT by pressing <ENTER>.

  SKILL - Press <ENTER> to choose from NOVICE, MODERATE, and EXPERT. As
  level gets harder, it's tougher to hit the enemy (tank movement and angle
  will affect accuracy); more and tougher enemies will attack you; and it's
  tougher for you to get a good score at the end of the game.

  BEGIN - Choose this to start the mission. You'll see the mission title;
  the SPACEBAR to continue. You will meet Col. Wilson and then go to the Motor
  Pool where you can choose your ammo mix and governor setting.

  Press <ESC> if you want to return to the Main Menu.

  You MUST identify the vehicle on the screen before you can begin the mission.
(Not any more! HeHeHe...) You only need to do this once each time you initially
boot up the game. You can find the vehicle in the "Vehicle
chapter of your manual. Enter the information requested and press <ENTER>.
you correctly identify the vehicle, you'll see the mission title; press the
SPACEBAR to continue. If you don't correctly identify the vehicle,
return to the Main Menu.

  ENDING A SCENARIO - A scenario ends after you successfully complete your
mission, get killed, or quit. You can quit a scenario at any time by pressing
"Q". Choose CONTINUE THE BATTLE if you change your mind about
quitting. Choose
QUIT ANYWAY or ABANDON THE M1 if you're sure you want to quit the scenario.
scenario will not be saved. At the end of every scenario, Col. Wilson reviews
your efforts and then you receive a mission summary. Your score - from zero to
500 - is based on the number of kills and how completely you fulfill the
mission's objective.

  You'll go on a tour of duty through all eight scenarios with all the
decided by fate. (If you haven't already identified the vehicle on your
you'll need to do so before you can continue.)

  BEGIN - Choose this to begin  your campaign. You'll be asked to enter
  name. Enter a name (up to 8 characters in length) and press <ENTER>.
  meet Col. Wilson and then go to the Motor Pool where you'll select your
  mix and governor setting.

  CONTINUE - (This option is only available if you've already started a
  campaign) Let's you pick up where you left off in a campaign. Choose the
  campaign you want.

  REVIEW - (This option is available only if you've already started a
  Let's you review a campaign. To find out how many of the 8 missions
  completed in a campaign, subtract 1 from the number of days.

  Your rating - from zero to 100 - is based on a rough average of your score
for each scenario. The ranking you get depends on your rating; the lowest rank
you can get is Warrant Officer, while the highest is Captain. You can ERASE
this campaign, view the NEXT one (If there is more than one), or RETURN to the
previous screen.

  ENDING A CAMPAIGN - You end a full campaign when you finish all the missions,
  get killed, or quit. You can quit a full campaign anytime by pressing
  Choose CONTINUE THE BATTLE if you change your mind about quitting. Choose
  QUIT ANYWAY or ABANDON THE M1 if you're sure you want to quit the
  (If you quit in the middle of a mission, that mission is considered over)
  After Col. Wilson reviews your efforts, you'll see "Now what,
Soldier?" You 
  can choose to TAKE R + R to save this campaign and return to the Main Menu,
  or CONTINUE to go on with the campaign.

  All campaigns are automatically saved. To erase a campaign select CAMPAIGN
  from the Main Menu. The select REVIEW, choose the campaign's name, and

  �  M1 INFO  �
  Under M1 INFO, you can find information about your crew, ammunition, and
  armament. Press <ESC> to get out of a selection.

  CREW - Shows your crew and their stations in the tank.
  AMMO - Shows the specifications on AX, HEAT, or SABOT.
  ARMAMENT - Shows the specifications on COAX, CANNON, or Smoke.

  �  EXIT  �
  EXIT - Choose this to return to DOS.

  As Tank Commander, your success depends on your overall knowledge of your
  M1 and your ability to use it to it's full potential.

  USING THE SCREENS - There are four positions from which you can view the
battlefield: the Gunner's station, the Tank Commander's station, the
and the Driver's station. To be a successful commander, you must be
familiar with these screens. See "M1 Battle Stations" for complete
details on
each screen.

  MOVING THE TANK - You can move the tank from the Gunner's station
<F1>, the
Tank Commander's station <F2>, or from the Driver's Station
<F4>. Press the UP
and DOWN arrows to move forward and backward. Press the left and right arrows
to turn. Notice that when you use the left and right arrows, you initiate a
spin (duh!); the longer you hold the arrow, the faster it will spin. Press the
UP arrow to stop the spin and move forward or the DOWN arrow to stop the spin
and move backward. To stop ALL movement, press 5.

  When you turn the tank, note the heading and bearing. The heading is the
direction the tank chassis is pointing while the bearing is the direction that
the turret is pointing. North is 0, East is 90, South is 180, and West is 270.

  MOVING THE TURRET - You can move the turret from the Gunner's station
<F1> or
the Tank Commander's station <F2>. Look at the tank icon on the
screen; the
outline of the tank hull and turret are different colors. Press "C" to
movement control from your tank hull to your turret; the colors of the hull and
turret will change to signify the change in control. The color combinations
below show what mode you are in. You can also control the turret from the
Driver's  station <F4>, and the Cupola <F3>, but you won't
see the tank icon.

MODE      EGA            CGA            Hercules
Tank      White Hull     Blue Hull      Grey Hull
          Grey Turret    Magenta Turret Grey Turret

Turret    Grey Hull      White Hull     White Hull
          White Turret   Blue Turret    Grey Turret

  Use the Left and Right Arrow keys to move the turret. The bearing is the
direction that the turret is facing; North is 0, East is 90, South is 180,
and West is 270. Notice that when you're in turret mode, the bearing
Direction) changes, but the heading (Tank Direction) doesn't. Use the UP
key to raise the turret, and the DOWN Arrow key to lower it. Press "A"
realign the turret with the front of the tank.

  SCANNING THE BATTLEFIELD - You can scan the battlefield from the TC station
without moving your turret or tank. Press <F2> to go to the TC station.
scan works off of your tank's current bearing (the direction that your
is pointing). <F8> moves you to a point 90 degrees clockwise of your
bearing, <F9> to a point 180 degrees of your current bearing, and
<F10> to a
point 270 degrees clockwise of your current bearing. <F7> returns you to
current bearing. Only your view changes. Your tank and turret never move.

  FIRING A WEAPON - Press <F1> to go to the Gunner's Station. Find a
target and
press <ENTER>. The TADS (Target Acquisition Device System) box will frame
target. You can press <ENTER> again and the TADS will frame another
target. When there aren't any more targets, it will turn off. If you
don't see
a box at all, then the target you've chosen is not a legitimate one (You
target anything but trees, mountains, and your own base). Check the Target
Readout in the lower left hand corner of the screen for an identification on
the target, its range, and what weapon is ready. Press "L" to lock the
crosshairs on the target in the TADS box. Press the SPACEBAR to fire the

  USING THE RADIO - Whenever you hear something that sounds like a Morse code
signal, press "R" to turn on your radio. You will be informed about
Nothing will happen if you have no messages.

  USING THE GOVERNOR - The Governor monitors your tank's engine. When it is
off, you can operate the tank at top speed - approximately 100 km/h - but you
also run the risk of overheating. As your engine overheats, your tank slows. If
you continue to push your tank, the engine will burn out and the tank will
stall; there is no way to get the tank running again. When the governor is on,
your tank speed is limited to a maximum of about 72 km/h, but you will protect
the engine from overheating. You can change the governor setting anytime by
returning to base. There is at least one base in each mission; some have more.

  RESTOCKING AMMO AND REFUELING - To restock ammo and/or refuel, you must
return to your base. There is at least one base in each mission, some have
more. You start each mission near a base. There is no limit to how many times
you can return to your base to refuel and rearm. When you refuel, your ammo is
replenished as well, or vice-versa. IF YOUR TANK RUNS OUT OF FUEL, YOU WILL

  The M1 holds four crew members; the Tank Commander, the Gunner, the Driver
and the Loader. Except for the loader's station, each station has a screen
lets you view the battlefield.

  The Gunner is responsible for acquiring, identifying, and firing on targets.
He has a sight looking down the barrel with multiple magnifications that lets
him view distant objects. He also has a thermal imaging system which enables
him to see in the night time or smoke-covered operations. Press <F1> to go
this station. The Gunner's Station is the first screen you see each time
enter your tank and whenever you press <F1>. You'll work with the
items at this station:

  GUNNER'S VIEWSCREEN - The Gunner's Viewscreen is the gunner's
eye on the
battlefield. You can look out onto the battlefield through the front of the
turret. Across the top of the screen is the turret's bearing; North is 0
degrees, East is 90, South is 180, and West is 270.

  TANK ICON - The small tank on the moving grid pattern is your tank icon. It
displays three types of information:

* A visual representation of the direction the tank is moving (North is the top
of the grid). It's important to always know where the front of your tank is
you can determine whether you're going forwards or backwards and determine
where your turret is in relation to the tank's body.

* The current mode of tank control. M1's independent turret allows two
types of
tank control: tank mode and turret mode. Tank Mode lets you control the Hull
and Turret as one unit. Turret Mode lets you control the Turret independently
from the Hull. The color combinations below help you identify what mode

               EGA            CGA            HERC
TANK MODE      White Hull     Blue Hull      Grey Hull
               Grey Turret    Magenta Turret Grey Turret
TURRET MODE    White Turret   White Hull     White Hull
               Grey Hull      Blue Turret    Grey Turret

* Structural damage to the M1's armor. As individual areas of the M1
armor become damaged, the area and severity of damage is represented on the
tank icon by colored lines:

ARMOR          EGA       CGA       HERC
Okay           Green     Blue      Grey
Severe Damage  Yellow    White     Grey
Destroyed      Red       Magenta   White

  If an area of armor is destroyed, the M1 is completely vulnerable in that
region. Another hit in this section could destroy the M1.

  BEARING - This is the direction (In Degrees) in which the turret is facing;
North is 0, East is 90, South is 180, and West is 270. Since the turret
operates independently of the tank body, it can be facing an entirely different
direction from the front of the tank.

  HEADING - This is the direction in which the front of the tank is pointing;
North is 0, East is 90, etc., etc.

  SPEEDOMETER - The M1 Abrams has a top speed of 100 km/h with the governor
turned off and 72 km/h with the governor turned on. Top speeds are lower if you
are travelling off the paved road.

  WEAPONS - Weapons include HEAT rounds, SABOT rounds, AX rounds, Coaxial
(COAX) Machine Gun Rounds, and Smoke Canisters. Next to each weapon you'll
the amount of ammo remaining.

  TEMPERATURE - When the temperature of the engine goes up, the color changes.

TEMP           EGA            CGA            HERC
Normal         Green          Blue           Grey
Hot            Yellow         White          White
Overheating    Red            Magenta        Grey

  In addition to the color code for overheating, the temperature box will blink 
when the tank is overheating.

  ZOOM - Press "Z" to choose from Normal View (1x), 3x, or 10x.

  THERMAL IMAGING - This lets you effectively operate in smoke and darkness.
Press "T" to toggle it On/Off. The screen turns red and black when
imaging is on. (Hercules Monochrome users: You will only see black and
different shades of grey.)

  TARGETING SYSTEM - The targeting system is composed of five parts:

* TAD (Target Acquisition Device) Box - This toggles through all the onscreen
targets. Press <ENTER> to activate the TADS Box; keep pressing
<ENTER> to
toggle through all the onscreen targets. The TADS Box will disappear when there
are no more targets.

* SIGHT -  The crosshairs of the sight show the current position of the
targeting system (where the turret is pointed). When you lock onto a target
through the TAD, the sight will center on the TAD Box. Press "L" to
lock onto a

* ID - Located on the Targeting Readout, this identifies the target currently
in the TAD Box.

* RANGE - Located on the Targeting Readout, this gives the distance of the
target in the TAD Box. Range gives one of four color-coded readouts, depending
on the distance of the target from you and the weapon selected:

Less than 25%            Grey      ----      ----
Less than 50%            Green     White     White
Greater than 50%         Yellow    Blue      Grey
Greater than 75%         Red       Magenta   ----

* WEAPON LOAD - Located on the Targeting Readout, this displays the current
weapon selected, loading status, and in-flight tracking status for guided

  As the Tank Commander, you make strategic decisions from inside the turret.
You have access to all maps of the area and a 360 degree periscope station.
Press <F2> to go to the Tank Commander's Station.

  MULTIVIEW TC WINDOW - This window shows you the battlefield. You can pan 360
degrees by revolving the tank or the turret. You can also use keys <F7>
<F10> to scan the battlefield without moving the tank or turret.


  OVERHEAD MAP DISPLAY - This shows you an overhead view of the terrain. You
can choose from two views by pressing "Z". This toggles between the
scenario territory, or a closeup of your immediate area.

  FUEL GAUGE - Your M1 holds 100 gallons of diesel. When you run out, you are
stuck. There is nothing you can do but to wait for enemy attack.

  MICRO DAMAGE SCREENS - This shows you a miniature version of your System
Damage screen. It is color-coded so you can immediately spot damage:

SYSTEM                   EGA       CGA       HERC
Fully Operational        Green     Blue      Grey
Partially Operational    Yellow    White     Grey
Non-Operational          Red       Magenta   White

  If you see any damage, you'll want to switch over to your System Damage
screen. Press "D" to inspect the System Damage screen close-up. Press
any key
to return to the TC screen.

  In addition, the Tank Commander can "go up top" and view through his
hatch in
the tank turret to get a better view of the outside world. This "up
station is called the "Cupola." The view from the Cupola is especially
in spotting airborne enemies. Press <F3> to go to this station.

  The driver sits below the main gun in front of the turret's hull. He is
responsible for navigating the M1. Along the bottom of the screen is the
heading, speed, fuel, and temperature. Press <F4> to go to this station.

  The loader is responsible for loading ammo into the turret's main gun.
function is handled automatically here, so you have no screen for this station.

  You have three types of ammunition to choose from, each suited for a
  particular target.

  SABOT (Armor-piercing, Fin-stabilized, discarding sabot) - Also called a
kinetic energy penetrator, this round discards a sabot upon exit from the
barrel, leaving a sub-caliber, high-velocity, hard dart which travels on to
the target.

* Very effective against armor.
* Ineffective against infantry, constructions (Bridges), and aircraft.
* Range of up to 2500 Meters.

  HEAT (High Explosive Anti-Tank) - HEAT rounds have a warhead with an
explosive shaped around a hollow cone. The warhead is detonated before contact,
producing a fiery tongue of gas which melts the target's armor.

* Very effective against infantry and constructions.
* Effective against armor.
* Ineffective against aircraft.
* Range of up to 2000 Meters.

  AX - This experimental anti-helicopter, anti-armor round is effective against
all targets. Because of the large shell size and wire guidance, loading is
slower than for other rounds.

* Very effective against aircraft.
* Somewhat effective against armor, infantry, and constructions, especially
  at extended ranges.
* Range of 770 to 4000 Meters.

  �  ARMAMENT  �
  You have three types of armament to choose from, each with a different

  COAX (AA Machine Gun) - This multi-purpose weapon is intended for use as an
anti-infantry and anti-aircraft device. (Not much good against a HIND)

* Mildly effective against infantry and very light armor.
* Marginally effective to ineffective against aircraft.
* Quick loading independent of Main Gun Rounds.
* Range of 0 to 1000 Meters.

  CANNON (120 mm Rheinmetall Cannon) - Main Gun. Fires Sabot, HEAT and AX
* Range and effectiveness depends on type of round fired.

  SMOKE DISCHARGER - This defensive weapon makes it difficult for an enemy
without thermal imaging equipment to see and target your tank.

* Used as a defensive weapon against sight-guided weapons like Spigots and
* Lasts about 20 seconds.
* Range of up to 100 Meters.

  Here are some useful tactics which, when used properly, will greatly improve
  your chances of success and survival.

  * Maintain a vigilant missile watch in missile areas.

  * Move cautiously and under cover in missile areas.
  * When a missile is on the way:
     1 - Return fire to disrupt guidance; HEAT and AX rounds are effective,
         sabots are not.
     2 - Lay smoke and hide yourself.
     3 - Run for cover!

  * Spot them first and fire first!
  * Use sabot rounds.
  * Use smoke cover and switch on thermal imaging if you find yourself in a
    tight spot.
  * When no cover is available moving will decrease the chance of being hit.
  * Point the front of the tank towards the enemy. never expose your flank or
  * Attempt to engage the enemy's flank or rear.

  * Lay smoke and switch on thermal imaging.
  * Use AX Rounds.

  * Before you start a mission, decide whether you should have your governor on
    or off. If you think a mission will require fast movement, you will want
    the governor off so the M1 can travel at top speeds. Also, make sure your
    ammo mix is appropriate for the fighting you anticipate.
  * Keep enemies to the front of the tank.
  * Fire at the most dangerous targets first.
  * Minimize exposure to the enemy's guns and eyes by using natural terrain
  * When an enemy does hit you, you will get a bearing readout of their
    position. Quickly point your turret to this bearing and fire back.

  The following details your missions and lists your specific objectives.

  A crisis code has been transmitted through the intelligence hotline. The
Soviets have broken though the Allied defenses and are heading right for the
Mossel River and your current position. But that is only part of the problem.
Reports are coming in that it is not just a few Soviet vehicles progressing
toward your position, but waves of them. Your mission is simple: Survive the
onslaught and destroy all of the attacking Soviet vehicles.

  In the last two weeks, critical supply convoys from Essen have been
disappearing around the area of Siegen. Rumors point to the presence of one,
possibly two, Soviet bases somewhere in the Siegen hills. The area is extremely
hilly, which provides a perfect setting for both ground and air attacks on
unsuspecting targets.

  Your mission is to seek out and destroy the base or bases. This mission is
vital to the survival of Allied cities, but poses great risk to the
infiltrating team due to the reported sightings if Hind helicopters in the
vicinity. These sightings have not been confirmed, but extreme caution is
nevertheless advised.

  An Allied base along the Nuremberg Highway has been cut off from resupply by
Soviet interdiction forces. Two supply convoys sent out to the base never made
it. Intelligence reports heavy ATGW activity in the hills along the road. Your
assignment is to clear out all Soviet forces along the highway to reopen the
supply route to the stranded base.

  Positioned near the Emes River in West Germany, the M1 base has found itself
in a potentially devastating situation. Soviet troops have pulled down from the
North and West and threaten to completely envelope the region unless they are
stopped. Your mission (should you decide to accept it.....) is simple yet
extremely dangerous: Destroy the three enemy bases located in your vicinity.
Destruction of the command centers will severely weaken the Soviet movement and
ensure the safety of your own base and its personnel.

  The tide is turning against the Allies. Frankfurt has just fallen and
intelligence reports describe a massive Soviet Armor convoy en route toward
Bonn. While small, Bonn has become important in front line control. Undoubt-
edly, the Soviets intend to avoid the Allied forces stationed at Koblenz by
crossing the Rhine River at Mainz. The Mainz crossing is the site of the only
remaining bridge into the Rhineland, one of the few unprotected routes through
the Allied front line defenses. The Soviet forces will attempt to secure this
bridge to prepare the way for a full scale invasion force. You must stop them.

  Your primary mission is to destroy the Mainz bridge. Without this passage,
Soviet forces will have to face the Allied front line head on. Your secondary
mission is to destroy as much of the Soviet reconnaissance team as possible.

  The Soviet forces have overrun Hannover and installed a base near the city.
Intelligence informs us that they have built up a large store of weapons and
vehicles and are planning a full scale sweep into Cologne. We have also learned
that they have established a communication fort somewhere to the East of this
base. They will use this communication link to coordinate invading forces and
to report back to Soviet headquarters.

  Your primary mission is to destroy the Soviet base. If the Soviets are
allowed to secure this base they will gain a major foothold into the Allied
front line. You are to do whatever is necessary. Your secondary mission is to
locate and eliminate the communications fort near the Hannover base. Without
this link to the front, the Soviets will have no way to coordinate attacks or
communicate with their forces. This will severely weaken their efforts on the
front line.

  There has been some serious trouble in the Seigen area. Despite numerable
seek and destroy missions by the Allies, the Soviets continue to attack Allied
supply convoys destined for Weller. The supplies these convoys are carrying
are needed desperately by the civilians in that area and the safe transport of
these convoys must be ensured.

  Your mission will be as escort and guard for the five truck convoy destined
for the Allied Base Weller across the Rhine River. You MUST protect these
trucks at al costs until their arrival at the Weller Base. The supplies that
they are carrying will then be loaded onto cargo planes for immediate air drop
to the needy cities.

  While at your current station between Pirmansens and the French border, you
receive a distress signal from a damaged Allied troop to your west, across the
Mossel River. It seems that they were surprised by a Soviet reconnaissance
group and had several of their units damaged before they were able to destroy
the Soviets. Air scouts have reported a small but powerful Soviet patrol
heading southward along the Mossel, a route that will take them directly past
the downed Allies. As the closest military base, you are their only hope.

  Your mission is to locate the downed Allied vehicles before the Soviet patrol
reaches them and to escort them back to your base. Although patrols have been
reported the area fairly clear of Soviet activity, we recommend that you remain
on guard.

  SOVIET vs NATO TANKS -- The comparison between Soviet tanks and their NATO
counterparts is a comparison between quantity and quality. The Soviet tank
force is much larger than NATO (about 95,000 active Soviet tanks versus 32,000
NATO tanks), but technologically, Soviet tanks are about six years behind NATO

  Soviet tanks are lagging most in the areas of armor protection, accurate fire
control, and night vision equipment. Current Soviet tanks are not equipped with
Chobham armor, which offers excellent protection against shaped charge warheads
(HEAT Rounds). Since most infantry anti-tank weapons use HEAT-Rounds, Chobham
armor makes a tank impervious to nearly all infantry weapons. Soviet fire
control systems are not as accurate as NATO's, and this results in a lower
chance of a first-round kill. Recent NATO tanks also have excellent fire
stabilizing systems which allow fire-on-the-move accuracy equal to that of
stationary Soviet tanks. The Soviets also have not been equipping their tanks
with thermal imaging systems, the best systems for night operation. This is
probably due t the cost (the thermal system on the M1 accounts for 10% of the

  To the Soviet's advantage, their tanks are much lighter, require a crew
only 3, and there are a lot more of them. The main tank of the Soviet Army, the
T-72, costs about half that of the M1 ($500,000 vs $1,000,000 dollars).

  Soviet military experiences have led to a preference of a large mediocre
force rather than a smaller, more skilled one. NATO units still believe they
can exact a disproportionate kill rate against Soviet tank formations. The
Soviets believe that even though they may suffer heavy tank losses, in the end
quantity has a special quality al its own. A popular phrase in the Soviet
military is "number annihilate."

  ACRV-3 Command Vehicle
  Introduced: 1974                 Combat Weight: 13 Tons
  Length: 6.32m                    Width: 2.84m
  Height: 2.34m                    Maximum Speed: 58 km/h
  Primary Armament: None           Armor: Light
  Overall Threat Level: Negligible

  This basic tracked vehicle can serve as a mobile command post. It is not
  designed to fight on the front lines.

  BMP-1 Infantry Fighting Vehicle
  Introduced: 1967                 Combat Weight: 14 Tons
  Length: 6.74m                    Width: 2.94m
  Height: 2.15m                    Maximum Speed: 78km/h
  Primary Armament: Sagger Missile (5 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 73mm gun (40 rounds)
  Reload: 3 seconds                Range: 1500m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: Moderate

  This is the original IFV, an APC designed to fight. It has thicker armor and
  better armament than an APC. It is also equipped with a Sagger ATGW. The BMP
  carries a crew of three, and can carry s nine man infantry squad.

  BMP-2 Infantry Fighting vehicle
  Introduced: 1981                 Combat Weight: 16 Tons
  Length: 6.71m                    Width: 3.09m
  Height: 2.06m                    Maximum Speed: 62km/h
  Primary Armament: Spandrel Missile (4 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 30mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 3 Seconds                Range: 2500m
  Armor: Moderate                  Overall Threat Level: High

  The logical development of the BMP-1. The main difference lies in the fitting
  of a larger turret equipped with a 30mm cannon, a 7.62mm coaxial MG, and a
  Spandrel ATGW.

  BDRM-2 Tank Destroyer
  Introduced: 1966                 Combat Weight: 8 Tons
  Length: 5.75m                    Width: 2.35m
  Height: 2.31m                    Maximum Speed: 95km/h
  Primary Armament: Sagger Missile (14 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 14.5mm MG
  Reload: 3 Seconds                Range: 1500m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: Moderate

  This wheeled vehicle is employed by the Soviet Army as either a
  vehicle or a tank destroyer. In a reconnaissance, it is usually not equipped
  with an ATGW.

  BDRM-3 Tank Destroyer
  Introduced: 1974                 Combat Weight: 9 Tons
  Length: 5.87m                    Width: 2.38m
  Height: 2.61m                    Maximum Speed: 95km/h
  Primary Armament: Spandrel Missile (15 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 14.5mm MG
  Reload: 3 Seconds                Range: 1500m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: Extremely High

  The BDRM-3 is an improvement over the BDRM-2 with the largest difference
  being that it has replaced the Sagger with the more powerful Spandrel

  BTR Armored Personnel Carrier
  Introduced: 1978                 Combat Weight: 12 Tons
  Length: 7.85m                    Width: 2.80m
  Height: 2.45m                    Maximum Speed:80km/h
  Primary Armament:14.5mm MG
  Secondary Armament: None
  Range: 750m                       Armor: Light
  Overall Threat Level: Negligible

  This amphibious wheeled APC is widely used by Warsaw Pact forces. It has a
  crew of two and can carry up to 9 passengers. It is adequate as a troop
  transport but should avoid combat due to its thin armor.

  FST-1 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1978                 Combat Weight: Unknown
  Length: Unknown                  Width: Unknown
  Height: Unknown                  Maximum Speed: Unknown
  Primary Armament: 135mm smooth bore cannon
  Secondary Armament: Unknown
  Reload: 4 Seconds                Range: 2250m
  Armor: Heavy (Reactive)          Overall Threat Level: Extremely High

  This recently introduced tank is undergoing full-scale field trials in an
  inner-military district of the Soviet Union. This tank is believed to be
  turretless. It is rumored to have an automatic loader and a thermal blinder.
  It supposedly holds a crew of two.

  M113 Armored Personnel Carrier
  Introduced: 1960                 Combat Weight: 12 Tons
  Length: 4.86m                    Width: 2.28m
  Height: 2.54m                    Maximum Speed: 67km/h
  Primary Armament: 12.7mm MG      Secondary Armament: None
  Reload: --------                 Range: 750m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: N/A

  The standard APC of the US Army. It serves as an excellent troop transport.
  However, it is not as heavily armored as the IFV's. It first entered
  in 1960, and there have been numerous variants and improvements. The M113 has
  proven to be a reliable, practical troop transport.

  M1A1 Abrams Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1981                 Combat Weight: 63 Tons
  Length: 7.91m                    Width: 3.65m
  Height: 2.37m                    Maximum Speed: 72km/h
  Primary Armament: 120mm smooth bore cannon (40 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (80 Rounds)
  Reload: 4 Seconds                Range: 2250m
  Armor: Very Heavy (Chobham)      Overall Threat Level: N/A

  The US introduced the M1 in 1981 as a replacement for the M60. It is equipped
  with the most advanced systems available: a 120mm Rheinmetall smooth bore
  gun, which fires both the APFSDS and HEAT shells; Chobham armor, a ceramic
  steel composite nearly impervious to existing shaped charge warheads; and a
  thermal imaging system which enables night operations.

  M2 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle
  Introduced: 1981                 Combat Weight: 24 Tons
  Length: 6.45m                    Width: 3.23m
  Height: 2.56m                    Maximum Speed: 66km/h
  Primary Armament: TOW Missile (6 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 25mm Chaingun (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 4 Seconds                Range: 2500m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: N/A

  This Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) was developed as a counter to the Soviet
  BMP. The M2 is designed to be used in conjunction with the M1 as part of a
  tank/infantry team. he tank provides long range firepower, while the IFV
  provides firepower against softer targets, and assists in spotting and
  destroying anti-tank weapons. The M2 has 3 advantages over the M113 in this
  role; better mobility and cross-country speed, greater firepower, and
  superior armor protection.

  M60a3 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1977                 Combat Weight: 57 Tons
  Length: 6.94m                    Width: 3.63m
  Height: 3.27m                    Maximum Speed: 48km/h
  Primary Armament: 105mm rifled bore cannon (6 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 4 Seconds                Range: 750m
  Armor: Heavy                     Overall Threat Level: N/A

  The M60a3 is the most recent version of the highly successful M60 series. The
  M60a3 is a solid tank, but its small bore gun, slower speed, high profile and
  relatively light armor make it no match for more modern tanks such as the
  Soviet T-80.

  Mi-24 Hind Assault Helicopter
  Introduced: 1971                 Combat Weight: 11 Tons
  Length: 17m                      Width: 12m
  Height: 6.5m                     Maximum Speed: 320km/h
  Primary Armament: Spiral Missile (4 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 23mm Cannon (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 3 Seconds                Range: 2750m
  Armor: Light                     Overall Threat Level: Extremely High

  The Hind is a large, fast heavily-armed helicopter. The Hind-C version
  actually set a series of world records, including the current overall
  helicopter speed record of 386km/h. It can carry eight fully-equipped combat
  troops, and is armed with anti-tank guided weapons. Soviet forces in
  Afghanistan have operated the Hind since December of 1979.

  T-62 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1962                 Combat Weight: 44 Tons
  Length: 6.63m                    Width: 3.30m
  Height: 2.39m                    Maximum Speed: 50km/h
  Primary Armament: 115mm smooth bore cannon (40 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 12 Seconds               Range: 750m
  Armor: Heavy                     Overall Threat Level: Very Low

  The T-62 was developed from the earlier T-54/55 series. It is believed that
  about 20,000 T-62's were manufactured. It was the first tank to be fitted
  with a 115mm smooth bore gun (The T-55 had a 100mm rifled gun). When it was
  released it was an adequate tank, but now it is badly outclassed.
  T-64 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1965                 Combat Weight: 42 Tons
  Length: 6.45m                    Width: 3.62m
  Height: 2.33m                    Maximum Speed: 60km/h
  Primary Armament: 125mm smooth bore cannon (40 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 10 Seconds               Range: 1250m
  Armor: Heavy                     Overall Threat Level: Low

  The T-64 was a controversial tank design, with many western commentators
  evaluating it as less than adequate. However, the radical design was a
  milestone in Soviet tank evolution. Not only did the Soviet designers
  increase the gun size to 125mm, they also incorporated an automatic loader.
  This allowed them -- to the great surprise of the West -- to reduce the crew
  to three.

  T-72 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1972                 Combat Weight: 45 Tons
  Length: 6.95m                    Width: 3.60m
  Height: 2.37m                    Maximum Speed: 60km/h
  Primary Armament: 125mm smooth bore cannon (40 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 8 Seconds                Range: 1500m
  Armor: Heavy                     Overall Threat Level: Moderate

  The T-72 (also known as the T-74) is the principle MBT of the Soviet Army. It
  is armored to a level comparable to the US M60a3. During fighting in Lebanon
  in 1982, Israeli forces had no difficulty in knocking out T-72's with
  ARFSDS shells and TOW anti-tank missiles. The 125mm gun is a potent weapon, 
  but suffers from dispersion problems at ranges greater than 1,000m. The gun
  is stabilized , and although the accuracy is nowhere near that of the M1, it
  does offer some level of fire-on-the-move capabilities.

  T-80 Main Battle Tank
  Introduced: 1980                 Combat Weight: 46 Tons
  Length: 6.91m                    Width: 3.64m
  Height: 2.28m                    Maximum Speed: 68km/h
  Primary Armament: 125mm smooth bore canon (40 Rounds)
  Secondary Armament: 7.62mm MG (40 Rounds)
  Reload: 6 Seconds                Range: 1750km
  Armor: Heavy                     Overall Threat Level: High

  The T-80 is an evolution of the T-64 design. The T-80 has improved mobility,
  with a 1,000 horsepower turbine engine and a new suspension system. It also
  has a laser rangefinder and an anti-PGM electronic warfare system. It is
  being retro-fitted with reactive armor bricks to protect it against infantry
  anti-tank rockets and missiles.

  These anti-tank weapons are either mounted on a vehicle such as an APC or
  they can be set up on the ground and operated by infantry. They are generally
  low-velocity HEAT missiles. Most of the systems pass guidance information
  from the operator to the missile by means of a wire which connects the two.
  Some are radio guided, but these are susceptible to jamming. All of them fire
  HEAT missiles.

  AT-3 Sagger
  During the Arab-Israeli War in October of 1973, two-man teams of Egyptian
  infantry opened what looked like small suitcases and inflicted casualties on 
  Israeli battle tanks the like of which had been seldom seen on any
  battlefield. Ever since, the little missile Code Named "Sagger" has
  treated with great respect.

  AT-4 Spigot
  This is a high-performance infantry missile fired from a tube.

  AT-5 Spandrel
  This missile is mounted on the BDRM-3 and BMP-2 vehicles. It is significantly
  more effective than the Sagger. The group of Soviet forces in Germany is 
  thought to have replaced all its Swatter and Sager missiles with the Spandrel
  in 1980, giving them a great increase in anti-tank capabilities.

  AT-6 Spiral
  This is a large laser guided weapon mounted on the Hind-D helicopter. It is
  capable of demolishing an AFV.

  In the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the Egyptians employed Soviet Sagger
ATGW's. In
the opening conflict, the Egyptians shocked the world  by knocking out many
Israeli tanks. However, after their initial surprise, the Israeli tank
commanders rapidly developed the practice of getting ff a quick round in the
direction of any puff of dust or other visual sign which might indicate the
launching of an ATGW. Since the velocity of a shell from a tank gun is much
greater than that of any current anti-tank missile, the tank would usually win
these quick draws, or at least cause the missile operator to miss his target

  Experienced tank commanders maintain a missile watch. Even a missile with
little backblast will likely kick up dust, snow, or sand. Even if the backblast
is not detectable, the missile itself can usually be seen. A good defensive
tactic against anti-tank missiles is to make rapid movement for cover while
firing at the missile's operator; this can reduce missile effectiveness by
or more times.