Gunboat – River Combat Simulation (Manual.txt)

                        GUNBOAT - RIVER COMBAT SIMULATION

Typed by SKID ROW.  Edited by PARASITE.

Introduction: Faster Than a Speeding PBR...........................1
Section 1: Startup.................................................5
How to Load Gunboat................................................5
Quick Start........................................................7
Combat Maneuvers...................................................9
Section 2: At Dockside: Taking Command
Demonstration Mode................................................12
Practice for Duty.................................................12
Report for Duty...................................................15
    Identify Yourself.............................................16
    Choose Your Mission...........................................18
    Arm Your Boat.................................................19
    About Your Crew...............................................19
Section 3: Gunboat Systems & Procedures...........................21
General Commands..................................................22
The Pilot's Station...............................................26
The Gunners' Stations.............................................32
When the Mission Ends.............................................37
Section 4: PBR Reference Section..................................38
PBR Technical Specifications & Development History +..............38
The Brown Water Navy: An Overview of American PBR Warfare.........40
Know Your Enemy...................................................50
Section 5: Troubleshooting........................................56

Page 1 follows:

San Francisco Bay glittered under the summer sun as the PBR Mark III
turned away from Mare Island a cut a long, smooth wake over the
northeastern sloughs.  From his perch in the bow gunner's turret,
Tom Loughry took in the full 270-degree view of crystal clear
California sky overhead, and watched a pair of great blue herons
rise from the rushes along the near shore.  They looked almost close
enough to touch.  He smiled and settled back as the boat picked up to
30 knots.  In his hyperactive imagination, the spark of idea ignited,
and caught fire.

Loughry was riding high in more ways than one that bright May day.
His last entertainment program, the Steel Thunder tank simulation,
had just been nominated for Best Simulation Program of 1988 by
the Software Publisher's Association - the equivalent of being
nominated for an Oscar in software.  Accolade Producer Sam Nelson
was after to him to create another hit - soon.  Steel Thunder had
offered simulation fans a degree of immediacy and realism that
hadn't been seen anywhere before, and Tom knew that Steel Thunder's
program engine had the potential to drive a great naval combat
simulation.  That afternoon, he also knew that he'd found his boat.

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"I'd been investigating different kinds of boats for awhile,"
Loughry remembers.  "I first looked at big ships like the high-
tech Ticonderoga-class cruisers.  But big ships usually pitch
battles at distances of over 100 miles, hurling missiles and
planes you can't see against an enemy you can't see.  I was looking
for something with an almost visceral immediacy, and that wasn't it.
So I looked at small craft, which led me right away to the PBR -
'Patrol Boat, River' - that the Navy developed for use in Vietnam.
The high-speed boats and close-combat tactics were exactly what the
Steel Thunder engine was built to handle, and I started to get
excited.  Then I learned that PBRs are still around - and that their
main training center is at Mare Island, only two hours from home.
So Roseann Mitchell, (Accolade's graphics and animation chief),
Sam Nelson (Accolade Producer for the project) and I went up there
to take a closer look."

For all three, the PBR was the ride of a lifetime.  "At one point,
the pilot yelled, 'Hang on!,' and spun the boat around in a full-
speed U-turn," remembers Loughry.  "Roseann held on with only one
hand, and lost her grip in the force of the turn.  She would have
gone over the side if she hadn't run into me first.  We'd turned
180 degrees in less than one boat length, at a speed of nearly
30 mph.  It was brutal."

Loughry spent several hours that day checking out the PBR's
systems and capabilites.  The Mare Island crew showed him how to
pilot the boat, running it in figure 8s and donuts in water in less
than two feet deep.  And then there were the guns.

"Sitting in the bow gunner's turret is like hanging off a 100-foot
pole off the front of the boat.  You're out there in this lightly
armored cubbyhole with nothing but open sky in front of you.  There's
not even a real seat: you sit on this strap, suspended over the bare
hull, with water sloshing around under your feet.  It feels really
dangerous.  Not that the other situations are any more

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cozy: when you're standing at the stern gun and the boat is underway,
your feet are considerably below the water line, and the gun rises
just above it.  And the midship gunner stands up on top of the engine
compartment, between two steel plates that are only about waist high -
another vulnerable position.  All in all, the most comfortable
place on the boat is the cabin: there's no seat, but at least you're
inside armored walls that come up to your nose."

PBR warfare was a central plot element in the movie Apocalypse Now,
so Loughry figures people who've seen the movie will have a pretty
good sense of what PBR combat is like - "the suspense of not knowing
what's around the bend, and the intense immediacy of battle."
Vietnam was a natural starting scenario, because that's where the
U.S. Navy first discovered and perfected modern riverine warfare.

"Panama was a natural, too, given its instability," Loughry notes.
"I discovered some months before the recent invasion that there
were U.S. PBRs stationed down there, and so I put that into the
simulation.  I had no way of knowing how timely these scenarios
were going to become.  Colombia is another unstable situation,
but the scenarios there are more of a fantasy.  There aren't any
PBR units down there that I'm aware of - but if we ever got involved,
they'd probably be among the first Navy forces to go in."

The up-close-and-personal nature of the combat scenes in Gunboat
posed an ethical dilemma - not only for Loughry, but for several
other members of the development staff.  Most mainstream combat
simulations draw the line at showing dead bodies and blood.  After
plenty of long, lively discussions, it was decided to take Gunboat
through that line, for some important reasons.

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"I don't think computer games should show gratuitous levels of
blood and gore."  Loughry is emphatic.  "On the other hand,
simulations are designed to communicate some level of reality,
and unfortunately, dead and wounded people are the reality of war.
Most combat games encourage people to think of war in terms of
detached explosions, which is a serious misconception.  A couple
of times, I started to take the gross parts out - but in the end,
I left them in.  War seems to have its place in the world, and
I'd rather have people take their aggressions out on computer games
than on each other."

One of the Gunboat scenarios includes falling rubble from a 7.1
earthquake.  "It's really hidden, so most people will probably
never find it... but it's there," Loughry insists.  The rockpile
is a tribute to the October 17, 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which
was centered less than 10 miles from Loughry's Santa Cruz mountain
home.  "Like everyone else in the Bay Area, I had trouble
concentrating on my work for a month or so afterward, especially
with the almost continual aftershocks rocking my office.  It seemed
natural to include some sort of monument to the quake, since it was
an important factor in Gunboat's development process."

From that wild spring cruise, through an autumn of wild arguments,
wild earth movements, wild political developments, and a wild pace
that would have exhausted almost any other programmer (but seems
to come naturally to Loughry), it follows that the final result
would be the wildest naval combat simulation ever launched on a
personal computer.

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  The following instructions are designed to take you quickly through
Gunboat's startup procedures.  Follow these steps, and in just a few
minutes, you'll be out on the water, on your way your first mission.

 o If you want to know more about equipment, armament, tactics, or
   any phase of your Gunboat mission, turn to the appropriate section
   of this manual.

 o As a general rule, you can press Enter or the Space Bar to move
   through the initial setup screens.  The resulting scenario will
   be based on default options.

1 Follow the instructions in the "How to Load Gunboat" section above
  to reach the Main Menu screen. Use the joystick or arrow keys to
  select Report For Duty, and press the joystick button or Enter.

2 When the sentry confronts you, refer to the Gunboat codewheel.  Line
  up the boat's class name (outer wheel), type (middle wheel), and
  designation letters (inner wheel); and enter the answer that appears
  in the window of the codewheel corresponding to the question.

Page 9 follows:

 Here are a few of the basic command sequences you'll need to run the
boat and keep yourself out of trouble:

PBR     Startup Sequence

1       Press X to go to Pilot's Station
2       Press F1 to turn on the Main Power
3       Press F2 to turn on the engines
4       Press V to move to the Bow (front) Gunner's station
5       Press F1 to turn on the master power for the bow guns
6       Press F2 to remove the safeties from the bow guns
7       Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight
8       Press B to move to the Midship Gunner's station
9       Press F1 to turn on the master power for the midship gun
10      Press F2 to remove the safety from the midship gun
11      Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight
12      Press N to move to the Stern (rear) Gunner's station
13      Press F1 to turn on the master power for the stern gun
14      Press F2 to remove the safety from the stern gun
15      Press F3 (optional) to turn on the spotlight

All your PBR's systems are now on, and you're ready to go.

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 From the Pilot's Station, use the following commands to change the speed
and direction of the boat:

         Up arrow/joystick forward    Throttle forward
         Down arrow/joystick back     Throttle back (use this to move
                                      into reverse and back up)
         ENTER/joystick button        Slow down
         Left arrow/joystick left     Turn left
         Right arrow/joystick right   Turn right

From any of the three gunners' stations, use the following commands
to change the speed and direction of the boat:

  F4  Reverse Course
  F5  Branch left at the upcoming fork in the river or river mouth
  F6  Branch right at the upcoming fork in the river or river mouth
  F7  Slow down
  F8  Speed up

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When a possible target appears in your window:

1 Center the target in front of the boat, and press F9 to request a
  target ID.  (This is important: firing on friendly forces is the
  quickest known route to a court-martial.  Your computer gunners
  won't fire on friendly targets.)

2 Press F10 to order the computerized gunners to open fire on all
  enemy targets.  Press F1O again to order them to cease fire.

To fire on a target from any of the three gunners' stations:

1 Go to the station that gives you the best clear shot at the
  target - and the best weapon to destroy it.  To do this, press:

          V  Front (bow) station
          B  Midship station
          N  Stern (rear) station

2 Use the joystick or arrow keys to aim your guns at the target.
3 Press and hold the Enter key or joystick button to release a burst
  of fire.
4 Press F10 to request additional fire from the other gunners'
  stations.  The computer automatically identifies the enemy, takes
  aim, and fires from these stations.  Press F10 again to order the
  other stations to cease fire.

Page 12 follows:


This section contains specific information on preparing your PBR and
crew for battle.  lt includes instructions for PBR practice drills,
dealing with base security and administrative paperwork, choosing your
mission, equipping your boat, and taking command of your crew.  The
Admiral recommends that you review it carefully to thoroughly
familiarize yourself with PBR operations.

The Gunboat Demonstration Mode is essentially a short hands-off mission
sequence that lets you see what the simulation looks like.

To enter the Demo Mode, load Gunboat.  When the Main Menu Screen
appears, press D on your keyboard.  The mission sequence demo repeats
itself in a continuous loop until you press any key to end it and
return to the Main Menu Screen.  Gunboat will also enter Demo Mode
automatically from the Main Menu Screen after approximately 30 seconds
if no key is pressed.

To run the demo without the sound effects, press S before you enter
the demo mode.

Gunboat offers three hands-on Practice Modes that are accessible from
the Main Menu Screen.  The Practice Mode is actually three different
drills, each designed so you can master one of the three most critical
PBR combat skills: operating the guns, firing grenades, or piloting
the boat.

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        o To enter Practice Mode, load the Gunboat simulation,
          following the instructions in Section 1.  From the Main
          Menu screen, rotate the joystick or use the arrow keys to
          highlight the type of practice you want, then press the
          joystick button or Enter to select.

        o To leave a Practice Mode and return to the Main Menu
          Screen, press the Tab key at any point during your drill.

When you enter a Practice Mode, everything's already turned on and
ready to go.  In each drill, there is no set mission objective, no
scoring, and no damage inflicted on your boat - though the computer
keeps track of the damage you inflict on your targets.  Here's how
each mode works:

You're the forward gunner, in place and ready at the bow of the
boat.  Your drill is simply to return fire on any and all enemy
targets.  Use the arrow keys or joystick to aim your guns; and press
Enter or the joystick button to fire.  Other commands include:

  -   Change Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast
      the gun mount turns in response to your joystick or arrow key
      commands.  Press once to make slow turns, a second time to
      make even slower turns, a third time to speed up the slew
      rate again.

  F9  Identify Target - Press this to find out more about the
      target directly in front of you.

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You're the center gunner, located in the middle of the boat along
with the M129 automatic grenade launcher.  You can send down a hail
of grenades on anything with impunity.  The practice commands at
this station are identical to those used in Gunnery Practice mode
described above - though picking off targets with the slower-firing
grenade launcher is considerably different than using a smaller gun
with a higher rate of fire.

You're at the helm, refining your navigation skills and getting the
feel of the boat.  The practice runs are conducted in and around Mare
Island, California, the Navy's West Coast PBR base.  As you cruise
the meandering riverways, experiment with the following commands:

-   Steering Slew Rate - A three-way toggle that controls how fast
    the water jets rotate in response to your joystick or arrow key
    commands. - and thus, how fast you turn.  Press once to make slow
    turns, a second time to make even slower turns, and a third time
    to take full, fast advantage of your boat's 30-foot turning radius.

Z   Pilot's port (left) station and view

X   Pilot's center station and view

C   Pilot's starboard (right) station and view

F9  Identify Target

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If you are using a joystick to control the action in Gunboat,
you'll need to press Ctrl + J simultaneously to activate it.  (Be
sure that the joystick is plugged into port 2.)  This can be done
at anytime during the game.  Hitting Ctrl + J a second time will
deactivate the joystick.  The keyboard remains active in either mode.

Use the following commands to change the speed and direction of the

         Up arrow/joystick forward    Throttle forward
         Down arrow/joystick back     Throttle back (use this to move
                                      into reverse and back up)
         Enter/joystick button        Slow down
         Left arrow/joystick left     Turn left (rotate water jets
         Right arrow/joystick right   Turn right (rotate water jets

The light blue stuff behind you in the water is your own wake - or
someone else's.  To sharpen your skills, try drawing a perfect figure
8 with your wake.

If you`re ready to bypass Practice Mode and get down to business,
go to the Main Menu Screen and select Report For Duty.

You must gain entry to the field operations center and pick up
your orders before you're allowed to go cruising around in hostile
waters.  At the base's main gate, a sentry interrogates you.  You
can either draw on your extensive knowledge of the scores of
vessel types comprising the U.S. Naval forces; or you can refer to
the enclosed Gunboat codewheel to get the information he wants.

Page 16 follows:

PBR units are often assigned to LSTs (Landing Ship, Tank) - large
maintenance ships anchored offshore, which serve as a kind of mobile
home port.  Your encounters with the Admiral occur on the bridge of
your unit's LST.  At the beginning of each mission, the Admiral first
requests that you identify yourself.

If you want to review your glorious career, or find out who else is
bucking for promotion, press F1 to view the PBR Commanders' File.  All
the current PBR officers are listed here (up to 14 on a disk), with
their individual battle stats, rank, medals, and commendations.  This
information is updated automatically after each mission.  Move the
joystick up or down or press the Up and Down arrow keys to cycle
through these records.

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Press F1 again to return to the bridge.  To identify yourself,
simply type your name (don't bother with the rank: the Admiral sees
your stripes very clearly), and press Enter.

NOTE:  The admiral tends to be a little impatient with new recruits.
Besides being quick on his feet and a keen thinker, he's usually
extremely busy - which brings out his nasty temper.  Don't make the
mistake of keeping him waiting around while you dream up answers to
his questions.  Efficiency counts.

If you're already listed in the personnel file, the Admiral welcomes
you.  If you're cleared for combat in more than one theatre, he asks
you to select the region in which you want to serve.  (Your choices
increase along with your rank and experience.)  Use the joystick or
the arrow keys to select your region, and press Enter.

If you're new to the riverine units, the Admiral asks: "How should
I update my roster?"  This is your opportunity to add or change the
information in the PBR Commanders' File.  Use the joystick or arrow
key to select one of the following options:

        o ADD       Add a new PBR captain's name to the list

        o REPLACE   Replace one name with another

        o REDO      Return to the Bridge (If you made a mistake,
                    you can start over again from here.)

Press F1 to view the Personnel Files again, if you want.  Press F1
again to return to the roster update menu.  When all the information
in the PBR Commanders' File is correct, press Enter or the joystick
button to move on.

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You gain rank and earn medals by completing missions.  Every mission
you undertake has a corresponding promotion rank.  If you complete
the mission successfully, you are automatically promoted to that rank.

The Admiral can offer you assignments in one of three areas, depending
on your previous experience and achievements.  For your first several
missions, he assigns you to Vietnam - the birthplace of modern
riverine warfare.  Once you're promoted to Second Lieutenant, you have
the opportunity to battle vicious drug lords and cocaine smugglers in
Colombia.  Only the elite PBR captains - those who've reached the rank
of Lieutenant Commander or above - are entrusted with the politically
sensitive missions that keep clear the Panama Canal Zone.

Once you've been assigned to a particular battlefront, the Admiral
outlines the current missions.  You can choose from between 2 and 8
missions, depending on your experience.  Use the joystick or the Up or
Down arrow keys to cycle through the assignment files.  In each file,
you can:

        o Read a brief description of the mission.

        o Press F2 to view the map of the mission area.  The arrow
          points to your primary mission target.  Press the arrow keys
          to show maps associated with other missions.  Press F3 to
          return to the assignment file that corresponds with the map
          you are viewing.

        o Press F4 to view boat and weapons specifications.  Use the
          joystick or the Up or Down arrow keys to cycle through the
          information screens.  Press F3 to return to the assignment

        o Press Enter to accept the mission.

The first mission of each scenario is a practice mission in which
you are invulnerable to enemy fire.  This helps you get the lay of the
land, and familiarize yourself with the enemy's positions and armament.

Page 19 follows:

The next step is to equip your PBR with the right engine and armament
for this particular mission.

From the PBR Outfitting Screen, you can press F4 to get more detailed
data on the engines and guns at your disposal.  Use the joystick or the
Up and Down arrow keys to cycle through the information.  (For even
more in-depth information on these options, refer to Section 4/
Equipment Reference.)  To return to the PBR Outfitting Screen, press

Move the joystick or use the arrow keys to move up and down the list
of engine and gun options.  To choose one of the options, press Enter
or the joystick button.

Fortunately, the ammunition supply for these guns isn't an issue when
you're in combat: fuel and ammo are your only cargo, and the boat holds
several days' worth of ammo.  Remember, however, that your abundant
ammo stores are a major attraction for the guerillas who inhabit
these rivers: they will pursue you enthusiastically and kill you quite
cheerfully to take possession of them.

In the real world, U.S. Navy PBRs typically carry a crew of four: a
first-class petty officer who serves as boat captain and pilot; a
gunner's mate, who controls the forward guns; an engineman, who takes
care of the engines and serves as midship gunner; and a seaman who
controls the aft guns.  All four are crosstrained in each other's
tasks - a redundancy that becomes crucial if one or two crew members
are wounded.

The four crew positions in the Gunboat simulation correspond to each
of the positions mentioned above. Your Gunboat crew includes:

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        o The Pilot, who controls the boat's course and speed

        o The Bow Gunner, who fires the twin M2HB .50 caliber or
          single .30 caliber Minigun mounted on the front of the boat

        o The Engineman/Midship Gunner, who handles the grenade
          launcher or machine gun mounted in the middle of the boat

        o The Stern Gunner, who fires the gun mounted in the stern of
          the boat.

As a Gunboat captain, it's your job to make tactical decisions, and
see to it that your gunners and pilot interact effectively under fire.
The next chapter contains more information about each station's
operations and capabilities.

Once you've selected your assignment and armed your boat, your boat is
fully staffed and equipped.  The Admiral sends you off with a few
parting words.  When you press Enter for the last time, you're in the
pilot's seat, ready to shove off from the dock.

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Section 3 :
Brown Water Warfare:
Gunboat Systems &

This section covers the systems and procedures for navigating your PBR,
commanding your crew, operating the four onboard battle stations, and
engaging the enemy in combat - in short, everything you need to know
to complete your assigned mission, from the time you leave the dock
until the time you return.

Every system on board your PBR is monitored and controlled from one or
more of the four crew stations.  Each station is accurately modeled
after the actual stations on the PBR Mark III boats currently in use by
the U.S. Navy.

Your primary role is that of PBR captain.  When you're at the Pilot's
Station, the computerized gunners stand by at their stations, awaiting
your order to fire.  As you become familiar with all the systems and
commands used in running and navigating the boat, you can rely less on
your computerized gunners, and move from station to station yourself,
operating the guns manually while issuing commands to the computerized
pilot at the helm.

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These commands are generally available to you at any point during
the simulation:

   ESC    Pause Action/Resume Action

    S     Sounds On/Off - Allows you to run the game wihout the music,
          engine sounds, or battle noises.

  CTRL Q  Exit to DOS

    Z     Move to the Pilot's Port (left) View Screen

    X     Move to the Pilot's Main (center) View Screen

    C     Move to the Pilot's Starboard (right) View Screen

    V     Move to the Bow (front) Gunner's Station

    B     Move to the Midship Gunner's Station

    N     Move to the Stern (rear) Gunner's Station

    E     Engine Sound On/Off - The PBRs huge engines are pretty
          noisy, especially when you're moving fast.  If the roar
          bothers your concentration, turn it off.

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    D     Detail Level Low/Hi - Reduces the level of simulation
          detail for added speed on slower machines.

   TAB    Return to Base - When the carmage gets extreme, or the
          mission's over, this is how you get home again.

    M     Mission Map - Get an overview of your position, and the
          surrounding area.  The maps are based on actual maps
          of Vietnam, the riverways of Colombia, and the Panama
          Canal Zone.  The Practice Mode maps shows the sloughs
          and rivers of the northeastern San Francisco Bay, where
          the U.S. Navy's Mare Island PBR training center and
          operations base are located.

Watch the map carefully when you know that there's an upcoming fork
in the river, so you'll be ready to give the computer pilot the right
directions when the time comes.  Two marks appear on the map to help
you keep your bearings:

        o A flashing arrow indicates your approximate destination

        o A flashing dot and crosshairs show your current position.

The action temporarily pauses while you refer to this screen:

    ,    Chase Boat View Screen - The top of the screen shows what
         your boat would look like from a chase boat following along
         behind you.  Use the joystick or arrow keys to move around
         and get different perspectives on your PBR.

The lower part of the screen summarizes how many enemy targets you've
destroyed so far in the course of this mission.

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NOTE: Don't get too caught up in watching your boat dance gracefully
over the waves, or gloating over your kill rate so far.  While you're
in the Chase Boat, your PBR is in the hands of your computer pilot (who
is none too bright), and your gunners hold their fire.  Unfortunately,
the enemy continues about its ugly business in your absence, and you
run the risk of returning to a dead boat with a deader crew.

    .    Assignment Review - After the ninth or tenth tough firefight
         of the day, you may start wondering why you ventured out here
         in the first place.  It might help to take another look at your
         mission orders, and refresh your memory.  The action pauses
         while you look at this screen.

    /    Damage Report Screen - A status summary of your PBR's crew and
         operating systems.  When you're under heavy fire, check the
         Damage Report Screen frequently to find out at a glance which
         systems you can still use, and how your crew is doing.  The
         action pauses while you look at this screen.

Because your PBR is fairly well armored, small-caliber bullets fired
on your hull won't slow you down much - though a few well-placed enemy
.50 caliber machine gun rounds can do some real damage to exposed crew
members, radar and spotlights.  You can't repair anything on board
while you're in enemy waters: if you take a hard hit, run aground, get
stuck, or lose your engines, use any resources you have left to blow
away as many of your attackers as you can - and then press Tab to
abandon your boat and Return to Base.

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NOTE:  The status of your PBR's Bilge Pumps is included on your Damage
Report Screen and will normally indicate that they are OFF.  They
automatically come ON when you sustain hull damage.  If you sustain
enough hull damage, the bilge pumps will not remove water as fast as
the water pours in, and you will sink.

    =   Time Compression - If you want to speed things up a little on
        your way to the front, press this three-way toggle key once.
        To speed them up even more, press twice - and hold onto your
        stomach.  Because time compression also speeds up the enemy's
        thinking processes and response rate, press it a third time
        when you suspect that enemy forces are nearby, or find
        yourself under fire.  This turns off the Time Compression

If you have a slow-running computer, you may want to fight the entire
mission with the time compression turned on.

    Backspace   Extra Time Compression - When you find yourself in a
                long, quiet stretch - or a very big hurry - hold down
                this key to get maximum time compression.  To slow down
                again, just release the Backspace key.

    F9   Identify Target - When you have a potential target in view,
         you can ask for identification.  (To get a clearer idea of
         what kinds of targets you might encounter, turn to Section 5.)
         Use this command often: shooting at friendlies is one of the
         better ways to get yourself court-martialed, so this is your
         insurance of continued job security.

Be sure that the target is lined up directly in front of the boat or in
your gunsight before you press F9.  This key identifies the closest
interesting looking target in the area dead ahead.

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The helm is the central control station for the entire boat, where all
the mechanical and navigational systems are located.  As captain, you
may spend a fair amount of time here: your ultimate success largely
depends on your competence at managing this station.  To reach the
Pilot's Station at any time, press X.

When you're at the Pilot's Station, the PBR is under your manual
control.  The pilot is assumed to be the captain of the boat (that's
you), so when the pilot dies, the mission is over.

The Pilot's Station includes three view screens.  Together, they give
you a nearly 270-degree view of the horizon, plus access to all your
controls.  To view these three screens, press:

     C  to view the right-hand panel

     X  to view the center panel

     Z  to view the left- hand panel

The following commands can be executed any time you're at the Pilot's
Station.  All of the corresponding gauges and indicators are located
on the center panel - with the exception of the radar screen, which is
on the right.

    F1    Master Power On/Off - The PBR's main power switch.  Turn it
          on to power up the boat.  Turn it off, and every powered
          system on the boat quits.

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    F2     Engine Power On/Off - Powers up the engines.  They take a
           few seconds to warm up.

    F3     Radar - The radar display maps the nearby coastline, along
           with vehicles, boats, surfacing mines, anything else that's
           nearby and interesting.  Use of radar is strictly optional,
           you may find it useful for "seeing" around corners - and
           indispensable for getting around at night.  The Raytheon
           1900/W unit is surface-scanning, and doesn't include
           sonar, so don't count on it to tell you about underwater

    F9     Identify Target - Gives you a positive ID on any potential
           target that's directly in front of the boat.

    F10    Open Fire/Cease Fire - Press F10 to order the gunners to
           open fire on a nearby target.  The gunners who are in the
           best position to get a clear shot respond immediately.  This
           command does not fire the mortars: to do that, you must move
           to the stern gunner's station.  To cease fire, press F10

    ENTER  Throttle Neutral - Moves the throttle into neutral.  Each
           time you press Enter, the boat slows down a little, until
           it eventually stops it dead in the water.  The throttle
           stick on the helm comes to rest in a neutral position.

    Up Arrow/Joystick Forward

           Throttle Forward - increases power to the water jets,
           propelling the boat forward.  Press ENTER or pull back on
           the joystick to slow down.  The throttle levers at the
           right of the screen move up as you accelerate, and the RPM
           gauges indicate how much power you're getting out of the

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    Down Arrow/Joystick Back

           Throttle Back - This command drops deflectors down behind
           each of your two jets, reversing the thrust and effectively
           putting you in reverse.  If you're moving forward when you
           first throttle back, the RPMs drop down to zero as you slow
           down, then pick up again as you begin to move backward.  The
           throttle levers at the right of the center view screen move
           down as you back up.

NOTE:  The twin engines (especially the big 450-horse-power ones) can
create a lot of racket when they're running wide open.  In situations
where stealth is more important than speed, slow down until you're
under the halfway point on the RPM gauges.  Running under the full-
throttle mark quiets the boat down considerably.

    Left Arrow/Joystick Left; Right Arrow/ Joystick
    Right Turn Left/Turn Right

           These commands rotate the water jets, causing you to turn
           left or right.  If you lose one of the two engines or jets,
           the boat becomes much harder to steer, and may not respond
           to your attempts to control it.  The steering wheel on the
           center panel moves in response to your turning commands.

    -      Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast the water
           jets turn in response to your commands.  Press the minus key
           once to make slow turns, a second time to make slower turns,
           and a third time to speed up again.  The Slew Rate knob on
           the center panel shows you current slew rate setting.

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The Pilot's Station includes a collection of gauges and indicator
lights that can give you a great deal of important information about
your PBR's systems.  They include:

RPM Gauges - One for each engine.  They work in both forward and
reverse.  RPM is a measure of power output, not speed, so don't
depend on these as speedometers.

Fuel Gauges - Each of the two engines has its own separate fuel tank;
these gauges show how much fuel you have left in each tank.  You can't
transfer fuel from one tank to the other; if you lose one tank in
combat, or just run out of gas, that engine is dead for the rest of
the mission.

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Water Jet Direction Indicator - The PBR doesn't use rudders to turn:
instead, the water jets swivel around, causing the boat to turn left
or right.  The pointer in this bar shows which way each water jet is
trying to point - though whether or not you actually make the turn
depends on the condition of your engines and jets, and what's in the
water.  If your jets get damaged or you lose engine power, the
Direction Indicator's accuracy can't be trusted.

Engine Status Light - These lights are located right above the power
switches for each engine.  As long as the light is green, the engine
is fine; when it flashes red, that engine is history.

Compass - Like any computerized compass, this one expresses your
heading as a number between zero and 360 degrees.  North is zero; east
is 90 degrees; south is 180 degrees; and west is 270 degrees.

Time Compression Indicator - For a full explanation of time
compression, see page 25 above.  This gauge shows which of the three
Time Compression settings you're currently using.

Slew Rate Indicator - The Slew Rate is discussed in the Keyboard
Command section on the previous page.  This knob shows which of the
three Slew Rate settings you're currently using.

When you leave the pilot's station, the computer pilot takes over.
Before you leave the helm in his hands, there are a few things you
need to understand about this guy.

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With a little help from a friend in the base records department, we
recently got an unauthorized look at his service record.  And all we
can tell you is; watch him closely.  It's not that you can't trust
him (although you may sometimes wonder if he's on the enemy payroll -
and in Colombia, your suspicion might be justified); it's just that
he's got the decision-making capabilities of your average opossum.
According to the commanders who've been stuck with him before, there
are some specific situations where he's next to useless:

        o  While you're off attending to other business on the boat,
           he does his level best to figure out what your course is,
           and hold to it.  But he can't read maps, and the Mission
           Map looks as tangled to him as the LA freeway system does
           to the rest of us.  When he comes to a fork in the river,
           or heads toward a coastline, he may remember your previous
           instructions to branch right or left or he may forget, and
           make the decision all by himself.  Keep a close eye on him -
           and the map - so you can correct his course before he
           steers you straight into downtown Phnom Penh.

        o  After several years in the Navy, he finally got the general
           idea that the best course to take in most rivers is straight
           down the middle, in the deep water, and well away from shore-
           bound enemies; and that the thing to do with coastlines is to
           follow them.  (The brass, recognizing this as true progress,
           promptly promoted him.)  But he still forgets sometimes, and
           has been known to run boats aground.  He's especially shaky
           booming through narrow canyons at high speeds, so it's best
           if you take over before he drives the PBR straight into a
           sheer rock wall.

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        o  Out on the open sea, he'll just take over from your current
           helm settings: if you were going straight when you left
           the helm, he'll keep going straight until he hits Hawaii -
           or (occasionally) a rockpile along the coastline.  If you
           were turning, he'll keep with it, running in circles
           forever.  And he hasn't the foggiest idea of how to evade
           boats or other obstacles in the water.

The up side is that he does recognize a few commands, and executes those
fairly reliably.  To issue orders from one of the other stations, use the
following keys:

    F4   Reverse Direction or, in simple language, turn around

    F5   Branch Left at the upcoming river mouth or fork

    F6   Branch Right at the upcoming river mouth or fork

    F7   Slow Down (he'll let you know when you've slowed to a stop)

    F8   Speed Up (he'll tell you when you've reached maximum speed).

The pilot is supported by a crew of three gunners, who operate all the
artillery on the boat.  Depending on the situation, you can move to any
of the the three gunners' stations and take matters into your own
hands; or you can rely on the computerized gunners to help carry the
battle.  To reach the three stations, press:

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    V    Bow (front) Gunner's Station

    B    Midship Gunners Station

    N    Stern (rear) Gunner's Station

The three gunners' stations use identical commands, and are equipped
with a similar collection of gauges and indicators.

Use the following commands to control the guns and spotlights at each

    F1   Power On - Turns on the gun's main power supply

    F2   Gun Safety On/Off - Releases or sets the gun's safety
         mechanism.  The safety must be turned off before you can
         fire.  Generally, you can turn it off at the beginning of the
         mission, and leave it off for the duration.

    F3   Spotlight On/Off - Each gunner's station is equipped with a
         bright spotlight.  This toggle switch turns the light on and
         off.  The spotlight is attached to the gun, and moves with the
         gun in response to your joystick or arrow key commands.

The spotlights can be helpful at night, but old-timers suggest that you
use them carefully, because they can attract a lot of unwanted attention
from enemy forces who otherwise may not have spotted you.

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    F9   Identify Target - Gives you a positive ID on any potential
         target that's directly in your line of fire.

    F10  Open Fire/Cease Fire at Other Stations - Opens fire at all
         gunner's stations except the one you're at.  The other two
         gunners continue to scan for targets and shoot until you
         press F10 again to cease fire.  The computerized gunners
         don't fire the mortar launcher.

    Joystick/Arrow Keys

         Aim Gun - Move the joystick or press the arrow keys to aim
         the gun at the target.  If the spotlight is on, these
         commands aim it as well.

    Enter/Fire Button

         Open Fire - The burst of fire continues for as long as you
         hold down the key.

    -    Slew Rate - This three-way toggle controls how fast the gun
         turns in response to your joystick or arrow key commands.
         Press the minus key once to make slow turns, a second time
         to make slower turns, and a third time to speed up again.
         The Slew Rate knob on your control panel shows the current
         slew rate setting.

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Each gunner's station comes equipped with a small selection of gauges
and indicator lights:

Compass - Just like the compass on the pilot's station, but this one
shows the direction your gun is pointing.  This is really useful if
you've been moving around the boat a lot, and are getting disoriented.

Slew Rate - The Slew Rate is discussed in the Keyboard Command section
just above.  This knob shows which of the three Slew Rate settings
you're currently using.

Time Compression - This gauge shows which of the three time compression
settings you're currently using.

Power On/Off - When this light is on, so you're gun's main power. 
it goes off, your gun is dead.

Safety On/Off - When this light is green, the gun's safety is off,
and it's ready to fire.  Red means that the safety is on.  Press F2
to turn it off.

Spotlights On/Off - If the green light is blazing, so is this
station's spotlight.  The light turns red when your spotlight is off
or has been damaged beyond use.

The front gun turret offers the best view on the entire PBR, and you
may find yourself spending most of your time up here.  After all, in
most situations, you're the first to spot danger ahead, and the first
to fire on it.  It's also the only station equipped with two guns,
instead of just one.

The Bow Guns rotate a complete 270 degrees, so you can fire on just
about anything except the boat's cabin behind you.  You can outfit
the Bow Gunner's station with a pair of .50 cal M2HB machine guns, or
a M134 Minigun.  To find out more about these weapons, turn to the
discussion of Armament in Section 4.

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The engineman/midship gunner stands on a steel platform high atop the
engines, just behind the PBR's cabin.  Your gun rotate: in a full
270-degree sweep that takes in the sides and rear of the boat but,
like the bow gunner's station, you can't turn the guns around to fire
on your own cabin.  Also (to the relief of the stern gunner, who stands
just below you on the fantail), the gun can't be lowered far enough to
fire on the stern gunner's station.

The Midship Gunner's Station can be equipped with an M129 automatic
grenade launcher, or an M6OD .30 caliber machine gun.  Both these guns
were used in Vietnam, and both are still used on U.S. PBRs today.  For
a detailed description of each, turn to the Armament list in Section 4.

The Stern Gunner is located low down in the PBR's fantail - so low,
in fact, that when the boat's underway, he stands almost even with
the water.  (In Gunboat, you might notice that the boat's stern rises
up out of the water slightly as the boat accelerates.)  Like the
midship gun, the stern gun rotates 270 degrees around the sides and
back of the boat.  You can't turn it around far enough to fire on the
cabin or the midship gunner.

The Stern Gunner can be equipped with one M2HB .50 caliber machine
gun; an M6OD .30 caliber gun; or a 6Omm mortar that's your best bet
for bunkers and bridges.  Specific information on each of these guns
in provided in Section 4.

Because there are three gunners' stations - and only one of you - a
team of computerized gunners takes control of the stations you're not
currently occupying.  The computerized gunners respond to just one
command: F10, the order to open or cease fire.  They operate according
to some very specific rules:

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        o  When the Open Fire order is in effect, the gunners scan for
           enemy targets, and shoot same without any action on your
           part.  They continue to search and destroy enemy targets
           until you press F10 again, ordering them to cease fire.

        o  Computer gunners won't fire on friendly targets, which keeps
           you out of a lot of trouble.

        o  They also don't fire the mortar launcher.  You're on your
           own with that one.

        o  Though they're very supportive and reliable, remember that
           the computerized gunners generally aren't as accurate as you
           are.  If you're in a tricky situation and want the job done
           right, it's probably best to move in and do it yourself.

A message at the top of the screen notifies you when one of four
gunners is wounded.  When a gunner is killed, you no longer have access
to his weapon.  If you were at that gunner's station when he took the
fatal hit, the Damage Report Screen immediately appears in front of you.

Missions can end in one of three ways:

        o You achieve your mission objective

        o Your entire crew is killed and your boat is destroyed

        o You decide to abandon the mission in the middle, and go watch
          Apocalypse Now.

In any of these three cases, press Tab to return to base.  The Admiral
issues a mission report that evaluates your effort, and summarizes
your career status to date.

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Section 4: PBR Reference Section

The PBR (Patrol Boat, River) is a military adaptation of a commerical
boat originally designed and manufactured by United Boatbuilders of
Bellingham, WA.  Over the past 25 years, the U.S. Navy has
commissioned three generations of the PBR:

PBR Mark 1 (1966)

Length: 31'

Maximum Width: 11 feet

Top Speed: 28 knots

Engine: 215hp General Motors diesel truck engine; Jacuzzi water jet
        propulsion pump.

Draft: 18" fully loaded

Crew: Four

Radar: Raytheon 1900/W surface-scanning unit

Cost; $75,000 (in 1966 dollars)

As the first U.S.-made PBR, the 120 Mark I boats delivered in 1966
formed the foundation of the U.S. Navy's forces in the Mekong Delta.
It was smaller and slower than its successors, but proved the
viability of riverine warfare beyond a doubt.  Its twin 215-horsepower
diesel engines are included as an option in the Gunboat simulation.

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PBR MARK II (1967)
Slightly longer and more powerful than the Mark I.  The protective
aluminum gunwales on the Mark II's hull were a major improvement over
the Mark I, which was annoyingly prone to being sliced open whenever
it made hard contact with rocks, underwater obstacles, or other boats.
Over 130 Mark II PBRs were sent to Vietnam between 1967 and 1969.

The viciously powerful post-war version of the PBR, the Mark III is the
Navy's most current riverine craft.  The engines - 450- horsepower
monsters with a maximum speed of nearly 50 knots - put out enough
power to give a hydrofoil a fair race in open water.  In addition,
the Mark III is more maneuverable than anything you'll find in Road &
Track.  You can brake down from top speed to a dead stop, or complete
a 180-degree turn, in just a single boat length.  On the down side,
though, it's somewhat noisier than its predecessors, which means your
engine choice often comes down to a question of speed over stealth.

In 1978, the PBR Mark III cost about $500,000, minus guns.

Over the years, the term PBR (Patrol Boat, River) has described a wide
variety of boat types that were outfitted to perform the same
function.  The PBR in Gunboat fits the Mark II and Mark III
specifications described above, but can be equipped with weapons and
engines that saw use on the Mark I.

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Throughout its 200-year history, the U.S. Navy has focused on big
boats - enormous ocean-going vessels with tremendous range and
firepower; free-floating cities capable of supporting vast military
operations by sea, land, and air.  Because of this emphasis on
dominating the world's oceans, the Navy arrived in Vietnam with only
one previous experiment in small-craft riverine warfare: a fleet of
tiny boats that had patrolled the coastlines and rivers of Dixie a
hundred years earlier, during the American Civil War.

The beginnings of modern riverine warfare can be traced back to French
colonial forces who occupied Vietnam during the early 1950s - and to
the Vietnamese themselves, who had used the waterways of the Mekong
Delta as major highways (and, on occasion, battlegrounds) for centuries.
In 1953, the French designed the first prototypical PBR-type warboats
specifically for use on Vietnam's endless riverways, and introduced
them as the core of a new Vietnamese Navy that was specially geared
toward riverine combat.  (Only later did the French officers in charge
add a fleet of ocean-going ships.)  In 1955, the French turned full
control of the colonial navy over to the Diem government.

That same year, the first American naval advisors arrived in Vietnam,
and immediately grasped the tremendous strategic potential of the
Vietnamese Navy's riverine fleet.  When the Gulf of Tonkin resolution
was passed in 1964, the naval advisors seized the chance to quickly
upgrade the fleet with faster, quieter, newer, more heavily armored
boats, which would enable them to secure the critical Mekong Delta
region.  From here, the U.S. and South Vietnamese could dominate all
of Vietnam.

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To save time and money, the Navy bypassed the usual development
process, and went shopping for an existing commercial boat that
might do the job.  At United Boatbuilders of Bellingham, WA, they
found what they were looking for: a slick little jetdriven cutter
with a big GM-built engine, and no propellers to get tangled up in
sandbars and seaweed.  A military contract was issued in 1965, and
by March 1966 the first 120 PBR Mark I boats arrived in Vietnam.

The American-made PBR was far faster and more powerful than the earlier
generations of riverine craft, and the first U.S. PBR crews found
themselves literally writing the book on a whole new type of combat.
Every day demanded that they invent new tactics; every season over
the next four years saw further evoluion and refinement of their
strategies and skills.

Over the course of the war, "Brown Water Navy" missions fell into

        o interdicting Viet Cong supply lines along the Vietnamese coast;

        o flushing out NVA guerillas who infiltrated the inland Delta
          waters (this was especially critical - and tremendously
          effective - during the 1968 Tet Offensive);

        o and working in convoy with armored troop carriers and other
          boats on strike force missions throughout the Mekong region.

In the early years of the conflict, PBRs weren't based at onshore docks
or harbors.  Instead, they were attached to and serviced by LST (Landing
Ship Tank) vessels, which were anchored offshore.  The crews lived on
these ships, the PBRs were supplied and maintained by them, and every
mission began and ended there.  LSTs would stay at anchor for about six

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months, providing a floating command base for PBR units, before
returning to their own home bases in Japan, Singapore, or the
Philippines.  Later in the war, as the U.S. established harbors and
bases in the Mekong, PBR support facilities were moved onshore.

The PBR's size, stealth, and speed inspired its crews to invent some
rather imaginative uses for their craft:

        o On night missions, the crew would cut the engines completely
          and drift with the current (or wait at anchor in a secluded
          area), silently biding time, watching.  A nearby enemy unit
          settling in for the night would abruptly find themselves
          rudely awakened by blinding spotlights as one or two PBRs
          suddenly materialized out of the jungle darkness with all
          guns spirting out a rain of fire.

        o In early 1969, the Navy used giant CH-54 Flying Crane
          helicopters to airlift PBRs into isolated battlezones that
          were unreachable by waterway.  Their appearance in these
          inaccessible areas took the Viet Cong by tremendous surprise
          - an advantage that the PBR units usually turned into
          decisive victory.

        o And no, the onscreen reference to waterskiing isn't just a
          fantasy.  Jim Mesko, who has written extensively about
          Vietnam PBR units, notes: "In reality, PBR patrols were just
          like any other military operation - long, tedious, boring
          days that were sometimes punctuated by minutes of sheer
          terror."  During those long, tedious, unbearably hot and
          humid days on the Mekong, American PBR crews actually did
          haul out the ropes and skis, and perfected their wake-
          hopping techniques during a little spontaneous R & R.  With
          its powerful jets and tremendous speed, the PBR was a world-
          class water ski boat.

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Because of their unique role and the singular nature of their
missions, the riverine brigades were the only Navy forces who wore
jungle-green camouflage fatigues (instead of navy white & blue) as
their daily uniform.  Within the Navy, the PBR units earned a
distinguished reputation as an elite force that never, throughout
the entire war, failed to achieve a mission objective.

The U.S. military's policy of Vietnamization literally changed the
face of the PBR crews in the late 1960s.  One by one, over a period
of months, U.S. Navy crew members trained their Vietnamese
counterparts to take over control of the boats.  When U.S. forces
invaded Cambodia in 1970, the Mekong route into Phnom Penh was
opened by PBR units that were over 80% Vietnamese.  In the closing
years of the war, ownership of the boats passed into the hands of the
Vietnamese Navy.  And, no doubt, some of those original patrol boats -
now over 25 years old - cruise the Mekong Delta to this day.

Back home again, the Navy moved forward.  In Vietnam, their PBR units
had made history as one of the most successful and effective fighting
forces in the entire U.S. military.  In recognition of the PBR's
strategic value, the Navy established two permanent riverine fleets.
In 1976, the Navy commissioned the modern PBR Mark III a slightly
longer version of the Vietnam-era PBR, with General Motors 450-
horsepower engines that are nearly twice as fast as their
precedessors.  By 1980, the Mark III could be found in the navies of
Iran, Sri Lanka, Syria, Cambodia and the Philippines....and
throughout the waters of northern San Francisco Bay and the sloughs
of the Sacramento River Delta, where new crews come and take their
lessons from the pioneering vets of the Mekong's brown water war.

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When selecting weaponry for your PBR, take into account the type of
targets you're likely to encounter; and the kind of range, firepower,
and accuracy you'll need in order to complete your mission.  Your
choices include:

Fire Rate:              600 rounds per minute

Effective Range:        1996 yards

Ammunition:             .50 cal armor-piercing incendiary (API) rounds

This hefty gun has been in widespread use since the end of World War I,
and was standard equipment on PBRs in Vietnam.  After 70 years, it's
still a mainstay of the U.S. armed forces and 29 other armies around
the world.  It's your best choice for stopping onshore light armor and
unarmored boats - though somewhat less effective against infantry, due
to its slow rate of fire.  (Besides, firing API rounds at human beings
brings new meaning to the concept of overkill.)

Fire Rate:              2000 to 6000 rounds per minute

Effective Range:        1250 yards

Ammunition:             .30 cal bullets

The six rotating barrels on this small Gatling gun can churn out a
rain of bullets so devastating that the Vietnamese poetically named
it "The Muttering Death".  Among the aircraft and PBR crews who use
it's simply called the "Six Pack".  Because of its efficency as
anti-infantry weapon, it was installed on the PBRs recently sent to

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Though it can create some interesting holes in unarmored vehicles and
buildings, the Minigun's high rate of sustained fire is most useful for
mowing down bad guy and tents - making it the best choice for missions
in which you expect to encounter mostly infantry.

Fire Rate:              550 rounds per minute

Effective Range:        984 yards

Ammunition:            .30 caliber bullets

The M60 has been the standard U.S. military machine gun for the past
30 years, and saw heavy use in Vietnam.  This version has been
specially adapted for use as a pintle-mounted gun on helicopters,
armored vehicles, and riverine craft.  Belt-fed and gas-powered, the
M60 is intended to be used against infantry, light boats, and
unarmored targets.  (Don't bother firing it at bunkers or houses.)

Fire Rate:              230 to 450 rounds per minute

Effective Range:        1875 yards if you're not moving: about 400
                        yards if you are.

Ammunition:             40mm grenades

The M129 was originally designed to be mounted on helicopters, but
was later adapted for use by ground forces, tanks, and riverine craft
as well.  You can't keep up the burst very long - but then again, you
probably won't have to: small boats, unfortified buildings, and
unarmored vehicles will probably be rendered useless by just one well-
placed grenade and anyone unlucky enough to be within 10 yards when one
detonates probably won't live to tell about it.  It's the best thing
going for medium-scale deforestation, turning huts and sampans into
piles of straw, and even flattening small villages (if you're up for
the nasty court martial that's likely to follow).

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On the other hand, the launcher is hard to aim, and the grenades
don't pack quite enough juice to do much damage to structures like
bridges or bunkers, so don't waste time and ammo trying.

Fire Rate:              Launches one HE bomb at a time

Effective Range:        Approximately 1900 yards

Ammunition:             M720 high explosive (HE) bombs

This isn't used any more, but it was common equipment in Vietnam.
The M224 is the heaviest artillery in the Gunboat arsenal, and your
only serious choice against bridges, docks, concrete fortifications,
and onshore armor.  Be sure to aim the launcher carefully, and slow
down as much as possible before firing - the vibration and movement of
the boat can really cut down on the mortar's accuracy.  The M224's
extremely slow rate of fire makes it useless in ambushes, unless
you're in a fortified position; and it lacks the finesse needed to be
very effective against tiny, slow-moving infantry targets.

The first U.S. riverine crews arrived in Vietnam without so much as a
book to go by.  You don't have to.  Here are some tactics, tips, and
assorted odd thoughts on making the most of your PBR:

  o Full-throttle is the only way to fly if you're trying to get
    somewhere - or get away from something - very fast.  But most of
    the time, PBR crews prefer to mosey along at a leisurely pace,
    with plenty of time to scout the banks and choose their course.

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  o If you keep your speed low (below half throttle), the enemy is
    much less likely to hear you - the better for sneaking up on
    targets.  Opening the throttle over the halfway mark makes you a
    great deal easier to find.

  o If you approach a target head-on, your bow gunner is the only crew
    member that can get a clear shot at it.  Since everyone wants to
    get into the act, try to angle in on a target, go your midship and
    stern gunners get the chance to use their firepower.

  o PBRs are very light, and draw almost no water - attributes which
    make them terrific on smooth, shallow rivers, but about the last
    boat you'd want to take into rough water or high seas.  Bear this
    in mind, and exercise extreme caution when you're out in open water.

  o Beware of submerged rocks, roots, and sandbars whenever you
    approach the shore.  They can hang you up, bog you down, or damage
    the boat.  The radar screen sometimes provides clues as to their
    location, but your best defense is to slow down and ease up to
    the shore.

  o Recognize the limitations of your computerized pilot.  When you're
    under fire from a fort, are speeding through a canyon, or find
    yourself in any situation that requires a steady, quick hand on
    the helm, switch to the driver's station.  For one thing, you're
    no doubt better at evasive driving, avoiding traffic, and making
    it through a slalom course of mines.  For another, he has an
    annoying tendency to panic under fire and ram the PBR into things
    like canyon walls or other boats.

  o Hitting the shoreline or running aground can do more damage to
    your boat than a bunker's worth of hostile infantry:

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  o You can do serious damage to your water jets.  If just one of the
    jets gets skewed, your PBR can persistently veer left or right for
    the rest of the mission.

  o If both jets get mangled, you're in for a slow, wobbly ride.

  o If you hit a rock or cliff, you risk putting a hole in your hull.
    In these cases, your flak jacket does not do double duty as a
    flotation device.

  o Use the Backspace or = (equals) keys to turn on the time compression
    and zip through stretches of friendly or barren territory.  Use them
    until you get shot at, or reach something you want to inspect more
    closely.  One caution: enemy thinking processess also speed up when
    you use time compression, so turn it off immediately when you
    discover enemies about.

  o None of the guns on your PBR come equipped with stabilizers.  Your
    aim is cleanest when the boat is stopped, moving slowly, or
    maintaining an even speed over smooth water; and your chances
    decrease drastically in rough water, or at high speeds.  In order
    to get the most accurate identification of a target, slow the boat
    down - especialiy if you're in choppy water.

  o In most cases, it's easiest to aim using the middle slew rate
    setting.  To refine your aim, slow the slew rate down to the
    lower setting.

  o When the boat is rapidly turning, suddenly speeding up, or
    abruptly slowing down, it's prone to tilt, which can throw off
    your aim.  Be aware of this, and try to compensate.  If possible,
    ask the pilot to slow down, and don't issue Slow Down or Speed Up
    commands while aiming at targets.

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  o If the target's moving, don't aim at where it is - aim at where it
    will be a few seconds from now, when your shell catches up with
    it.  The amount of lead time depends your range, your fire rate,
    and how fast the boat is moving relative the target.  If you try
    to hit a target that's out of your gun's range, you'll
probably miss.

  o Shoot your guns in short bursts.  This gives you time between
    bursts to check and make sure you're actually hitting something.

  o The front gunner's station is probably the best seat in the house.
    You're the first to see trouble ahead, and the first to respond to

  o The spotlights are great for finding your way around at night - but
    they also advertise your position to enemy.  Instead of risking
    exposure, press F9 to identify targets in the dark.

  o Keep an eye on the computerized pilot, and anticipate upcoming
    river forks.  Remember, if you don't press F5 (branch left) or F6
    (branch right), he'll decide for himself which fork to take, and
    the next thing you know, you'll be sending the Admiral postcards
    from Caracas.

  o There's a right way to mount a bridge assault - and a wrong one.
    The wrong way is to blast away at the midspan, creating a small
    gap that the enemy can patch up in less than a week.  The right
    way is to aim at the supports on either end, effectivly undermining
    the structure of the entire bridge.

  o It is extremely difficult to get a clean mortar hit at a bridge
    foundation.  Practice, and don't give up on your assault too soon.

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  o Every gunner's station has a different 180-degree field of view.
    It's disturbingly easy to get yourself turned around as you switch
    from station to station, especially if the boat's taking some fast
    turns.  If you're feeling dizzy, refer to the Mission Map
    frequently to make sure you're still heading the right direction.

  o It's hard to aim anything very accurately on a fast-moving boat.
    In situations where you can't do the job with a sharpshooter's
    finesse, make up for it with raw, unleashed power.  Your ammo is
    unlimited, so it costs you nothing to spray your guns back and
    forth over the targets and mow `em down - just like in the
    gangster movies.

  o When the Good Shot!  message appears at the top of the screen,
    remember that you're not the only crew member aboard - and the
    comment could be intended for someone else.

You may encounter scores of different target types on your various
Gunboat missions.  We've compiled this list to familiarize you with
some of the more common enemy resources.

The Vietnamese scenarios reflect the war as it was in 1970, and the
equipment you encounter there is the similar to what the original
riverine units faced during those days.  Among the unfriendlies
you'll meet:

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A light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tank.  Watch out
for the 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of
the cargo.

A Soviet World War II dinosaur with stubbornly thick armor and a
wicked 100mm gun.  Nothing to do but turn tail and run, or grit your
teeth and lean on the throttle - you don't have the armament to deal
with it.

Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped
with a .5Ocal machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it with
.50 caliber rounds - before it nails you.

This Soviet missile launcher isn't as deadly to boats as it is to
tanks - though will still put a hole in your aluminum hull.  Shoot
down the missile if you can; then take out the launcher belore it can
fire another one.

These are basically sandbag piles.  Use .5Ocal guns or grenades.

You'll encounter a wide assortment of bridges.  All of them can be
taken down with your mortar launcher and enough persistence.

The natives make these boats out of reeds.  Everyone in Vietnam used
them, including civilians and the U.S. forces, so you should be extra
careful about firing on the right ones. (Blowing up old ladies on the
way to market is a good way to get courtmartialed; blowing up your
own troops is an even better one.)

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VC infantry wear either fatigues or the standard-issue black pajamas.
Be sure to get a good ID before blazing away at them.

Green, leafy stationary targets.  You don't get points for blowing
them up.

Used by both us and them, and the civilians as well.  Like bridges
and sampans, don't blow one up without good ID - or good reason.  Your
mortar launcher is your best bet.

Hamburgers, anyone?

The Colombia scenarios represent an escalation of the current American
war on drugs.  You're going up the tropical rivers to clean out drug
refineries, chemical storage dumps, docks, and fortified strongholds
of the Medellin Cartel.  One thing here that you won't find elsewhere:
some of the enemy armament you'll come up against is American-made.
Even at black-market prices, these high rollers can afford the best.

The good old Made-In-America World War II-vintage Patton tank working
here for the Other Side.  Lucky commanders can get away with lobbing
mortars at it.  Smart ones just get away.

A big old lumbering U.S. battle chopper outfitted .30 and .50 caliber
guns - and sometimes, TOW-2 wire-guided missiles.  Your .50 caliber gun
should be enough to swat it out of the sky.

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Could be Juan Valdez hauling his mountain-grown coffee beans into
town.  Or, it could be a small arsenal-on-wheels, complete with
TOW-2 launchers and machine guns of varying sizes in the back.  If it's
the latter, take it out with your .50 caliber gun or grenade launcher.

Light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tanks.  Watch out for
their 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of the
cargo.  Use your .50 caliber guns.

Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped
with a .50 cal machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it with
.50 caliber rounds - before it nails you.

Flashy, fast small and medium-sized power boats.  They're usually
bristling with small arms.  Like any unarmored vehicle, it's
vulnerable to your .50 caliber gun or your grenade launcher

Colombian huts tend to be more substantial than Vietnamese hooches -
and require more substantial ammo.  But they don't last long in a
rain of grenade fire.

Your basic stack of sandbags.  Use the .50 caliber gun or the grenade

A sturdy sandbag structure that's reinforced with tree trunks.  It
houses a single mortar launcher.  In this case, fight fire with fire,
and go for your own mortar.

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A solid brick building that probably contains a large salvo of
mortars, and possibly other heavy armament as well.  Defensive
driving is your best best when caught in a hail of fire from one of
these fortifications.  Generally, the shells tend to fall in an
identifiable pattern.  A sharp pilot who discerns the pattern can
anticipate and evade incoming fire, ensuring that the PBR comes
through in one piece.

Infantry by any other name.  Deal with them accordingly.

The Soviets supply most of the armament you'll see in Panama; until very
recently, they were a more reliable source of spare parts.

A widely-exported Soviet tank with heavy armor and big guns.  Not
modern, but formidable.  Don't even try to stop them.

A light, thinly-armored Soviet-made reconnaisance tank.  Watch out
for the 76mm guns, and the infantry units that are usually part of
the cargo.  The thin armor won't stop your .50 caliber shells.

BTR 60/BTR 70
Another Soviet export: a fast light-armor infantry carrier, equipped
with a .50 caliber machine gun and a 3Omm grenade launcher.  Nail it
with .50 caliber rounds - belore it nails you.

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Think of it as a sitting duck.  It's huge, stationary, extremely
visible (that big dish can be seen for miles), and vital to the
enemy.  It's also very vulnerable to fire from your .50 caliber gun,
if you can get within range.

Positioned to keep the Panama Canal clear of unwelcome traffic, this
one means double trouble for you.  The airborne missile can wipe you
out in mere seconds, unless you slow down, take careful aim with your
.50 caliber, and shoot it out of the sky belore it reaches the boat.
Even if you succeed, the launcher can instantly lob another one at you
- so don't hesitate to destroy the launcher, too.

In the Canal Zone, these Soviet-made choppers are thicker than
mosquitos, and even more annoying.  They carry lots of AT-6 Spiral
missiles, which they will gleefully hurl at you.  On the other hand,
they're not the most maneuverable of beasts, so it's not impossible to
take out a low-flying Hind with your .50 caliber machine gun.

Flashy, fast small and medium-sized power boats.  They're usually
bristling with small arms.  Sink them with your trusty .5G caliber
machine gun.

Ubiquitous targets.  If you can't handle these by the time you get
to Panama, you don't deserve your stripes.

Sorry - there are no bonus points for defacing local monuments.

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If you have any questions about Gunboat, and you can't find the
answers in the manual, our Customer Support folks can help.  You can
call us at 408-296-8400 between 9 AM and 5 PM Pacific Time, or write
to Accolade Customer Support, 550 S. Winchester Blvd., San Jose, CA
95128.  Be sure to have your computer handy when you call, and have
the following information: your computer's brand and model, its
memory and what peripherals are attached.


Pilot's port (Left Station)......................... Z
Pilot's Main Station................................ X
Pilot's Starboard (Right) Station................... C
Bow (Front) Gunner's Station........................ V
Midship Gunner's Station............................ B
Stern (Rear) Gunner's Station....................... N

Power On/Off........................................ F1
Engines On/Off...................................... F2
Radar On/Off........................................ F3
Steering Slew Rate: Hi/Med/Low...................... -
Throttle Forward.................................... Up Arrow
Throttle Back....................................... Down Arrow
Slow Down........................................... Enter
Rotate Water Jets Left.............................. Left Arrow
Rotate Water Jets Right............................. Right Arrow
Indentify Target.................................... F9
"Gunners, Open Fire/Cease Fire"..................... F10
Detail Level: Low/Hi................................ D

Power On/Off........................................ F1
Gun's Safety On/Off................................. F2
Spotlight On/Off.................................... F3
Aim Slew Rate: Hi/Med/Low........................... -
Aim................................................. Up Arrow, Down Arrow,
                                                     Left Arrow and
                                                     Right Arrow
Fire................................................ Enter
"Pilot, Reverse Course"............................. F4
"Pilot, Branch Left"................................ F5
"Pilot, Branch Right"............................... F6
"Pilot, Go Slower".................................. F7
"Pilot, Go Faster".................................. F8
Identify Target..................................... F9
"Gunners, Open Fire/Cease Fire"..................... F10
Detail Level: Low/Hi................................ D

Engine Sound On/Off................................. E
Sounds On/Off....................................... S
Pause Game.......................................... ESC
Return To Base...................................... TAB
Exit To DOS......................................... CTRL + Q
Time Compression Off/On/Hi.......................... =
Time Compression While Pressed...................... Backspace

View Map............................................ M
Chase Boat View..................................... ,
View Assignment..................................... .
View Damage......................................... /